Education, a major issue in Pakistan

Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah said:

“Education is a matter of life and death for Pakistan. The world is progressing so rapidly that without requisite advance in education, not only shall we lag behind others but maybe wiped out altogether.”


The system of education encompasses all organisations that are involved in providing formal education (public and private, for-profit and nonprofit, on-site or online instruction), as well as its staff, pupils, physical infrastructure, supplies, and regulations. In a broader sense, the system also refers to the organisations that are directly responsible for funding, supervising, running, or controlling such groups (like government ministries and regulatory bodies, central testing organizations, textbook boards and accreditation boards). The educational system also includes the rules and laws that govern how people and institutions interact with one another.



With the assistance of 1,535,461 teachers, the 260,903 institutions that make up Pakistan’s educational system are able to accommodate 41,018,384 students. There are 80,057 private institutions and 180,846 governmental institutions in the system. As a result, 69% of educational institutions are public, while 31% are operated by the private sector.

By implementing domestic education policies and participating in international agreements on education, Pakistan has demonstrated its commitment to promoting literacy and education in the nation. In this sense, national education policies represent the views that recommend methods to raise the literacy rate, expand human resources, and improve physical facilities in educational institutions. Pakistan is committed to promoting literacy on a worldwide scale through the MDGs and EFA programmes.

Reviewing Pakistan’s educational system reveals that not much has changed in the country’s schools since 2010, when the 18th Amendment made education a fundamental human right. Access, quality, infrastructure, and opportunity inequality issues continue to be widespread.

People learn how to exercise their national, societal, and individual rights, and the educational system instils in them the sense of responsibility they need to fulfil their obligations as citizens of the country. Once the realisation strikes, people begin to work in an environment of trust and cooperation toward the growth and success of their motherland.

Because of the divisiveness and lack of unity in the educational system, there is angry political unrest, lethal terrorism, ongoing sectoral violence, social unrest, economic instability, and governmental system deterioration. All of these issues—poverty, a lack of employment opportunities, security concerns, sectarianism or terrorism, a lack of tolerance, a lack of public knowledge, and illiteracy—are effects of the inadequate, inefficient, and unproductive educational system. The smallest budget allocation, a sea of several unsuccessful education strategies, and a quagmire of political, social, and economic development have all failed miserably to rescue the nation.

Any country’s economic, social, political, and structural development is fundamentally influenced by its educational system. By enhancing Pakistan’s educational system, several economic problems, including poverty, overpopulation, unemployment, resource mobilisation, inflation, exchange rate volatility, housing, infrastructure, and health, can be mitigated and managed. Social problems like the Baradari system, Wadera Culture, Chaudary rule, and the slave mindset can also be resolved through education. Political issues include the struggle for power among politicians, lawlessness, fraud, corruption, religious riots, extremism, processions to gain popularity, the use of lewd remarks, the lack of public service, and the lack of human investment to save the lives of underprivileged and ignorant people. The implementation of the country’s educational system and a strong education policy are required for structural development, such as the change from outdated methods to contemporary ones, the shift from agriculture to industry, the mechanisation of hand tools, the shift from the traditional physical education system to online education, and the adoption of highly advanced and cutting-edge technology.

Since its foundation, Pakistan has struggled to create an educational system that can meet the needs of the general populace. Pakistan, a growing nation, is dealing with numerous concerns and problems in the field of education. All educational levels in Pakistan, including primary, secondary, colleges, and universities, are plagued by a variety of challenges that are both frequent and practised.

Lack of funding, lack of policy implementation, flawed examination systems, poor infrastructure in educational institutions, a lack of qualified teachers, low enrollment, a wayward and aimless educational system, high rates of dropouts, rising political interference, outdated curricula, corruption, poor management and supervision, a lack of uniformity, a lack of research, a lack of faculty training and development, and corruption are the major problems with the education system.

These are the most pressing concerns and problems facing our educational system, and they must be addressed. Some of them are discussed below:

  1. A lack of consistency

The education system differs from one another and is centred on Deeni Madaris, private institutions, and public institutions. Due to Pakistan’s polarising educational system, polarisation in that system has accelerated. The Nation’s cultural veins have been impacted by this. The results of this divided system are the latest waves of sectarianism and terrorism. Instead of bringing people together, a polarised education system has furthered social, political, and economic divisions. This split is tearing the intellectual bedrock of the country apart and paving the way for increased linguistic and religious segmentation.

  1. Education without a plan

Every nation on the planet requires a good education system. All nations develop their people or human resources by putting a strong emphasis on education and training. We have a poor and directionless education system with a lack of cohesion and a preference for general education over the development of skilled labour, resulting in massive unemployment. It also causes widespread political, social, economic, and cultural upheaval. Science and technology are not used in the educational system. Critical thinking, creativity, imagination, reasoning, experimentation, innovation, and invention are not developed in students.

  1. inadequate instruction

We continue to adhere to an antiquated education system that emphasises rote memorising of facts and figures rather than the holistic growth of each individual. Development of the psychological, intellectual, and social underpinnings of education should be the goal of education. The current curriculum does not encourage students to engage in real-world research and development, scientific knowledge, or critical reflection.

  1. inadequate teachers

The quality of educational institutions and teachers is poor, according to a UNESCO report. In rural areas of Punjab, Sindh, and Baluchistan where there are no instructors, the scenario is worse. Teachers do not organize lessons, do not use the old cramming technique, do not conduct research, do not use the internet or libraries, and do not read books. On the basis of cramming and memorization of facts and statistics without in-depth knowledge, intellectual comprehension, or comprehension of issues in the books without application in the classroom, students are advanced to the next class.

  1. Examination system

In Pakistan examination system is faulty and it tests only the memory of students, there is use of unfair means, bribery, cheating, issuance of duplicate marks sheets, changes of marks, change of answer sheets, impersonation. This present examination system has promoted rote memorization and cramming. It has badly failed in producing critical thinking, analytical skills, learning, intellectual power and visionary reflection in the students at all levels of education. It does not measure the strength, achievements and performance of students (Quereshi, 1975).

  1. Corruption

Another element contributing to the decline of the educational system is corruption; its offshoots include gender-based abuse and exploitation as well as the use of unfair methods, nepotism, and favours in hiring, promoting, and other judgement processes.

  1. huge number of new private schools opening

Numerous new private schools are opening as the Matric system is replaced with the O and A level with the most recent technological advancements. They have a more advanced infrastructure, larger classrooms, fewer students per class, better-trained teachers, and suitable hygienic conditions. They also have counsellors, doctors, psychologists, teachers of its subjects, coaches for sports, swimming pools, and other amenities. Students’ creativity is boosted through a variety of activities. Since public schools lack these amenities, parents opt to send their kids to nearby private schools.


  • According to the international standards for education, budgetary allocations should be enhanced.
  • To solve the load shedding problem, schools should switch to solar power.
  • The ratios of students to teachers, students to schools, and teachers to schools should be balanced, and the size of the class, the amount of teachers, and the amount of classrooms should all meet international education standards.
  • Make boundary fences, please. The hiring of security personnel, the installation of CCTV cameras, and the issuance of identity cards to students, teachers, and staff are all necessary.
  • It is important to establish high-caliber professional institutes for teacher development.
  • At all educational levels, political and administrative influence should be kept to a minimum.
  • The system of accountability needs to be strengthened, and everyone involved in the education system needs to be trained to take responsibility for both personal and group actions.
  • In order to bring our educational system in line with those of other nations, curriculum should be updated annually, and new strategies and methods should be added.
  • The exam system needs to be free of unethical tactics, Mafia culture, and unlawful gratification. Strong supervision and monitoring are necessary to tame this factor.
  • To achieve desired results, policies should be applied gradually and consistently.
  • The promotion of a research study in academic system is necessary.
  • Programs for linking academia and industry should exist to make education more applicable and to prepare students for employment.


Education helps us grow intellectually, but it also purifies and polishes our bodies and souls. We pursue education not only for financial reasons but also to address social, political, psychological, ethical, legal, and spiritual challenges that arise in our daily lives. A polished human being is produced through education, and this polished human being serves as a nation’s human capital and is essential to its development. With the aid of education, numerous nations are dominating the globe and rising to the top of the international community. Our younger generation is leaving Pakistan and relocating to industrialized nations because the current system has left them feeling lost and worried about the future.

Author: Javeria Khalid

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